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Plan, implement, and manage VMware s radically simple, enterprise-class software-defined storage platform
VMware s Virtual SAN has rapidly proven itself in environments ranging from hospitals to oil rigs to e-commerce platforms. Along the way, it has matured to offer unsurpassed features for data integrity, availability, and space efficiency. Virtual SAN 6.x makes all-flash storage practical for even more use cases, while radically simplifying IT operations and supporting the transition to hyper-converged infrastructures (HCI). Now, the authors of Essential Virtual SAN (VSAN) have thoroughly updated their definitive guide to this transformative technology. Writing for vSphere administrators, architects, and consultants, Cormac Hogan and Duncan Epping explain what Virtual SAN is, how it has evolved, what it now offers, and how to gain maximum value from it.
Hogan and Epping draw on unsurpassed experience shaping Virtual SAN and helping VMware customers deploy it. They offer expert insight into preparation, installation, configuration, policies, provisioning, clusters, and more. You ll also find practical guidance for using its new Health and Performance Services to gain end-to-end visibility into infrastructure and resource consumption. Both an up-to-the-minute reference and hands-on tutorial, Essential Virtual SAN, Second Edition uses realistic examples to demonstrate the immense power of Virtual SAN 6.x. You ll learn all you need to successfully plan and deploy the newest versions, and operate them smoothly and efficiently.
Understanding the goals and concepts of Software-Defined Storage and Virtual SAN Meeting updated requirements for safe Virtual SAN 6.x implementation Architecting, installing, and configuring Virtual SAN for your unique environment Simplifying deployment with VM storage policies and provisioning Controlling availability, performance, and reliability Efficiently managing and maintaining Virtual SAN Providing resiliency and scale-out storage functionality Designing and sizing clusters (with examples) Using stretched clusters to address rigorous downtime requirements Applying valuable new features such as deduplication, compression, checksums, and encryption Using Health and Performance Services to troubleshoot hardware, configurations, and performance
Table of Contents:
Foreword by Christos Karamanolis xvii About the Author xix About the Technical Reviewers xxi Acknowledgments xxiii We Want to Hear from You! xxv 1 Introduction to VSAN 1 Software-Defined Datacenter 1 Software-Defined Storage 2 Hyper-Convergence/Server SAN Solutions 3 Introducing Virtual SAN 4 What Is Virtual SAN? 6 What Does VSAN Look Like to an Administrator? 9 Summary 12 2 VSAN Prerequisites and Requirements for Deployment 13 VMware vSphere 13 ESXi 14 Cache and Capacity Devices 14 ESXi Boot Considerations 15 VSAN Requirements 15 VMware Hardware Compatibility Guide 16 VSAN Ready Nodes 16 Storage Controllers 17 Capacity Tier Devices 19 Cache Tier Devices 21 Network Requirements 22 Network Interface Cards 22 Supported Virtual Switch Types 22 Layer 2 or Layer 3 23 VMkernel Network 23 VSAN Network Traffic 24 Jumbo Frames 24 NIC Teaming 25 Network I/O Control 25 VSAN Stretched Cluster 25 VSAN 2-Node Remote Office/Branch Office (ROBO) 26 Firewall Ports 26 Summary 26 3 VSAN Installation and Configuration 29 VSAN Networking 29 VMkernel Network for VSAN 30 VSAN Network Configuration: VMware Standard Switch 31 VSAN Network Configuration: vSphere Distributed Switch 32 Step 1: Create the Distributed Switch 32 Step 2: Create a Distributed Port Group 33 Step 3: Build VMkernel Ports 34 Possible Network Configuration Issues 38 Network I/O Control Configuration Example 40 Design Considerations: Distributed Switch and Network I/O Control 42 Scenario 1: Redundant 10 GbE Switch Without Link Aggregation Capability 43 Scenario 2: Redundant 10 GbE Switch with Link Aggregation Capability 45 Creating a VSAN Cluster 48 vSphere HA 49 vSphere HA Communication Network 49 vSphere HA Heartbeat Datastores 50 vSphere HA Admission Control 50 vSphere HA Isolation Response 51 vSphere HA Component Protection 51 The Role of Disk Groups 51 Disk Group Maximums 52 Why Configure Multiple Disk Groups in VSAN? 52 Cache Device to Capacity Device Sizing Ratio 53 Automatically Add Disks to VSAN Disk Groups 54 Manually Adding Disks to a VSAN Disk Group 55 Disk Group Creation Example 55 VSAN Datastore Properties 58 Summary 59 4 VM Storage Policies on VSAN 61 Introducing Storage Policy-Based Management in a VSAN Environment 62 Number of Failures to Tolerate 65 Failure Tolerance Method 66 Number of Disk Stripes Per Object 69 IOPS Limit for Object 70 Flash Read Cache Reservation 71 Object Space Reservation 71 Force Provisioning 71 Disable Object Checksum 73 VASA Vendor Provider 73 An Introduction to VASA 73 Storage Providers 74 VSAN Storage Providers: Highly Available 75 Changing VM Storage Policy On-the-Fly 75 Objects, Components, and Witnesses 80 VM Storage Policies 80 Enabling VM Storage Policies 81 Creating VM Storage Policies 81 Assigning a VM Storage Policy During VM Provisioning 81 Summary 82 5 Architectural Details 83 Distributed RAID 83 Objects and Components 86 Component Limits 87 Virtual Machine Storage Objects 88 Namespace 89 Virtual Machine Swap 90 VMDKs and Deltas 90 Witnesses and Replicas 90 Object Layout 91 VSAN Software Components 94 Component Management 95 Data Paths for Objects 95 Object Ownership 96 Placement and Migration for Objects 96 Cluster Monitoring, Membership, and Directory Services 97 Host Roles (Master, Slave, Agent) 97 Reliable Datagram Transport 98 On-Disk Formats 98 Cache Devices 99 Capacity Devices 99 VSAN I/O Flow 100 Caching Algorithms 100 The Role of the Cache Layer 100 Anatomy of a VSAN Read on Hybrid VSAN 102 Anatomy of a VSAN Read on All-Flash VSAN 103 Anatomy of a VSAN Write on Hybrid VSAN 103 Anatomy of a VSAN Write on All-Flash VSAN 104 Retiring Writes to Capacity Tier on Hybrid VSAN 105 Deduplication and Compression 105 Data Locality 107 Data Locality in VSAN Stretched Clusters 108 Storage Policy-Based Management 109 VSAN Capabilities 109 Number of Failures to Tolerate Policy Setting 110 Best Practice for Number of Failures to Tolerate 112 Stripe Width Policy Setting 113 RAID-0 Used When No Striping Specified in the Policy 117 Stripe Width Maximum 119 Stripe Width Configuration Error 120 Stripe Width Chunk Size 121 Stripe Width Best Practice 122 Flash Read Cache Reservation Policy Setting 122 Object Space Reservation Policy Setting 122 VM Home Namespace Revisited 123 VM Swap Revisited 123 How to Examine the VM Swap Storage Object 124 Delta Disk / Snapshot Caveat 126 Verifying How Much Space Is Actually Consumed 126 Force Provisioning Policy Setting 127 Witnesses and Replicas: Failure Scenarios 127 Data Integrity Through Checksum 130 Recovery from Failure 131 Problematic Device Handling 134 What About Stretching VSAN? 134 Summary 135 6 VM Storage Policies and Virtual Machine Provisioning 137 Policy Setting: Number of Failures to Tolerate = 1 137 Policy Setting: Failures to Tolerate = 1, Stripe Width = 2 144 Policy Setting: Failures to Tolerate = 2, Stripe Width = 2 148 Policy Setting: Failures to Tolerate = 1, Object Space Reservation = 50% 152 Policy Setting: Failures to Tolerate = 1, Object Space Reservation = 100% 155 Policy Setting: RAID-5 157 Policy Setting: RAID-6 158 Policy Setting: RAID-5/6 and Stripe Width = 2 159 Default Policy 160 Summary 164 7 Management and Maintenance 165 Health Check 165 Health Check Tests 165 Proactive Health Checks 167 Performance Service 168 Host Management 169 Adding Hosts to the Cluster 169 Removing Hosts from the Cluster 170 ESXCLI VSAN Cluster Commands 171 Maintenance Mode 172 Default Maintenance Mode/Decommission Mode 175 Recommended Maintenance Mode Option for Updates and Patching 175 Disk Management 177 Adding a Disk Group 177 Removing a Disk Group 178 Adding Disks to the Disk Group 179 Removing Disks from the Disk Group 180 Wiping a Disk 182 Blinking the LED on a Disk 183 ESXCLI VSAN Disk Commands 184 Failure Scenarios 185 Capacity Device Failure 185 Cache Device Failure 186 Host Failure 187 Network Partition 188 Disk Full Scenario 193 Thin Provisioning Considerations 194 vCenter Management 195 vCenter Server Failure Scenario 196 Running vCenter Server on VSAN 196 Bootstrapping vCenter Server 197 Summary 199 8 Stretched Cluster 201 What is a Stretched Cluster? 201 Requirements and Constraints 203 Networking and Latency Requirements 205 New Concepts in VSAN Stretched Cluster 206 Configuration of a Stretched Cluster 208 Failure Scenarios 216 Summary 224 9 Designing a VSAN Cluster 225 Ready Node Profiles 225 Sizing Constraints 227 Cache to Capacity Ratio 228 Designing for Performance 229 Impact of the Disk Controller 231 VSAN Performance Capabilities 235 Design and Sizing Tools 236 Scenario 1: Server Virtualization Hybrid 237 Determining Your Host Configuration 238 Scenario 2 Server Virtualization All-flash 241 Summary 244 10 Troubleshooting, Monitoring, and Performance 245 Health Check 246 Ask VMware 246 Health Check Categories 247 Proactive Health Checks 253 ESXCLI 256 esxcli vsan datastore 256 esxcli vsan network 257 esxcli vsan storage 258 esxcli vsan cluster 262 esxcli vsan faultdomain 263 esxcli vsan maintenancemode 264 esxcli vsan policy 264 esxcli vsan trace 267 Additional Non-ESXCLI Commands for Troubleshooting VSAN 268 Ruby vSphere Console 275 VSAN Commands 276 SPBM Commands 300 Troubleshooting VSAN on the ESXi 303 Log Files 304 VSAN Traces 304 VSAN VMkernel Modules and Drivers 305 Performance Monitoring 305 Introducing the Performance Service 305 ESXTOP Performance Counters for VSAN 308 vSphere Web Client Performance Counters for VSAN 309 VSAN Observer 310 Sample VSAN Observer Use Case 316 Summary 318