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FITTING THE HUMAN: INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS / HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING 7E
Título:
FITTING THE HUMAN: INTRODUCTION TO ERGONOMICS / HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING 7E
Subtítulo:
Autor:
KROEMER, K
Editorial:
CRC PRESS
Año de edición:
2017
ISBN:
978-1-4987-4689-2
Páginas:
461
71,95 €

 

Sinopsis

Features

Provides a complete introduction to Ergonomics/Human Factors Engineering; making work safe, efficient, satisfying, and even enjoyable
Relies on sound science yet is written to be easy to read, easy to understand, and easy to apply
Illustrates typical ergonomic workplace design: home, office, computers, displays, controls, and load handling
Offers specific guidance on how to make work pleasant and productive
Summary

This new edition undergraduate introductory textbook follows the motto of the previous versions: ´Solid information, easy-to-read, easy to understand, easy to apply.´ The aim remains the same: ´Human engineering´ workplaces, tools, machinery, computers, lighting, shiftwork, work demands, the environment, officers, vehicles, the home - and everything else that we can design to fit the human. The new edition is up-to-date in content and language, in data and illustrations. Like previous versions, this book is for students and professionals in engineering, design, architecture, safety and management and to everybody else who wants to make work safe, efficient, satisfying, and even enjoyable.



Table of Contents

Preface xiii

About the Author xvii

The first page 1

Section I

The human body

1 Body sizes 5

1.1 Our Earth's populations 5

1.2 Measurements 5

1.3 No "average personö 11

1.4 Designing to fit the body 27

Summary 29

Fitting steps 30

Further reading 30

Notes 31

2 Mobility 33

2.1 Work in motion 33

2.2 Body joints 35

2.3 Designing for mobility 43

2.4 Workspaces 44

vi Contents

Summary 51

Fitting steps 51

Notes 51

3 Muscular work 53

3.1 Physiological basics 53

3.2 Dynamic and static efforts, strength tests 58

3.3 Fatigue and recovery 62

3.4 Use of muscle strength data in design 63

Summary 67

Fitting steps 67

Notes 67

4 Body strength 69

4.1 Static and dynamic strength exertions 70

4.2 Maximal or minimal strength exertion 72

4.3 Hand strength 73

4.4 Foot strength 76

4.5 Whole body strength 78

4.6 Design for use preferences 79

Summary 83

Fitting steps 83

Further reading 84

Notes 84

Section II

The human mind

5 How we see 87

5.1 Our eyes 88

5.2 Seeing the environment 90

5.3 Dim and bright viewing conditions 97

Summary 102

Fitting steps 102

Further reading 102

Notes 103

Contents vii

6 How we hear 105

6.1 Our ears 105

6.2 Hearing sounds 107

6.3 Noise and its effects 113

Summary 123

Fitting steps 124

Notes 124

7 How we sense objects and energy 125

7.1 Sensing body movement 125

7.2 The feel of objects, energy, and pain 127

7.3 Designing for tactile perception 130

Summary 134

Fitting steps 135

Notes 135

8 How we experience indoor and outside climates 137

8.1 Human thermoregulation 137

8.2 Climate factors: Temperatures, humidity, drafts 143

8.3 Our personal climate 145

8.4 Working in hot environments 148

8.5 Working in cold environments 150

8.6 Climate effects on mental tasks 153

8.7 Designing comfortable climates 153

Summary 154

Fitting steps 155

Notes 156

Section III

Body and mind working together

9 Mental activities 161

9.1 The brain-nerve network 161

9.2 Taking up and processing information 170

9.3 Making decisions 175

9.4 Actions and reactions 178

viii Contents

Summary 181

Fitting steps 182

Notes 182

10 Hard physical work 185

10.1 Physiological principles 185

10.2 Energy consumption 186

10.3 Heart rate as a measure of work demands 191

10.4 Limits of human labor capacity 193

10.5 Designing heavy human work 197

Summary 198

Fitting steps 198

Notes 200

11 Light and moderate work 201

11.1 Physiological and psychological principles 202

11.2 Tiredness, boredom, and alertness at work 205

11.3 Suitable postures at work 208

11.4 Accurate, fast, skillful activities 211

Summary 217

Fitting steps 218

Notes 219

12 Task load and stress 221

12.1 Task load 221

12.2 Mental workload 224

12.3 Distress 225

12.4 Underload and overload 227

12.5 Psychophysical assessments of task loads 228

Summary 231

Fitting steps 232

Notes 232

Contents ix

Section IV

Organizing and managing work

13 Working with others 235

13.1 Getting along with others 236

13.2 Motivation and behavior 238

13.3 Task demands, job rewards 242

Summary 244

Fitting steps 245

Notes 245

14 The organization and you 247

14.1 The human is in the center 247

14.2 Organizational strategy 249

14.3 Organizational structure 250

14.4 Organizational conduits 252

14.5 Organizational regulations and rules 252

14.6 Organizational culture 253

14.7 Individual thoughts, feelings, and behavior 254

14.8 A good place to work 256

Summary 257

Fitting steps 258

Notes 259

15 Working hours and sleep 261

15.1 Circadian body rhythms 261

15.2 Sleep 264

15.3 Rest pauses and time off work 269

15.4 Daily and weekly working time 271

Summary 276

Fitting steps 277

Further reading 277

Notes 277

x Contents

16 Night and shift work 279

16.1 Organizing shift work 281

16.2 Three basic solutions for shift work 282

16.3 Shift patterns 284

16.4 Selecting suitable shift systems 285

Summary 286

Fitting steps 287

Notes 287

Section V

Human engineering

17 Designing the home 291

17.1 Designing for mother and child 292

17.2 Designing for impaired and elderly persons 293

17.3 Access, walkways, steps, and stairs 293

17.4 Kitchen 294

17.5 Bedroom, bath, and toilet 295

17.6 Lighting, heating, and cooling 297

17.7 Home office 297

Summary 301

Notes and more information 302

18 Office design 303

18.1 Office spaces 304

18.2 The physical environment 307

18.3 Office furniture 317

18.4 Ergonomic design of the office workstation 322

Summary 330

Notes and more information 333

19 Computer design and use 337

19.1 Sholes' typewriting machine with its

QWERTY keyboard 338

19.2 From typewriter to computer keyboard 339

19.3 Human factors considerations for keyboarding 341

Contents xi

19.4 Input-related anthromechanical issues 345

19.5 Possible design solutions 346

19.6 Design alternatives for keyboards 349

19.7 Designing for new syntax and diction 350

19.8 Designing smart software 351

19.9 Designs that combine solutions 351

Summary 352

Notes and more information 353

20 Workplace design 355

20.1 Sizing the workplace to fit the body 355

20.2 On the feet or sitting down? 358

20.3 Manipulating, reaching, grasping 361

20.4 Displays and controls 364

Summary 369

Notes 370

21 Load handling 371

21.1 Material handling strains the body 371

21.2 Body capabilities related to load handling 372

21.3 Assessing load handling capabilities 375

21.4 NIOSH's lifting and lowering guidelines 378

21.5 Liberty Mutual's material handling guidelines 379

21.6 Designing for easy load handling 381

Summary 385

Notes 387

22 Healthcare for patients and providers 391

22.1 Patient care and safety 392

22.2 Care staff performance and safety 392

22.3 Emergency medical services, paramedics,

first aid physicians, ambulances 393

22.4 Design of wheelchairs and hospital beds 394

22.5 Moving patients 395

22.6 Medication alerts 397

22.7 Electronic personal and health records 398

22.8 Medical devices 399

22.9 Stress in the workplace 399

22.10 Safety guidelines, standards, and laws 400

xii Contents

Summary 400

Notes 401

23 Autonomous automobiles: Emerging ergonomic

issues 405

23.1 Road travel by automobile 406

23.2 Reasons for reengineering road traffic 406

23.3 Better ergonomics 407

23.4 New technologies-New ergonomic challenges 410

Summary 412

Notes 413

24 Making work efficient and pleasant 415

24.1 Using our skills and interests; getting along

with others at work 415

24.2 Setting up our own work, workplace,

and work environment 419

Summary 424

Notes and more information 425

The last page 427

References 429

Index 445