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Awareness of design smells - indicators of common design problems - helps developers or software engineers understand mistakes made while designing, what design principles were overlooked or misapplied, and what principles need to be applied properly to address those smells through refactoring. Developers and software engineers may ´know´ principles and patterns, but are not aware of the ´smells´ that exist in their design because of wrong or mis-application of principles or patterns. These smells tend to contribute heavily to technical debt - further time owed to fix projects thought to be complete - and need to be addressed via proper refactoring.
Refactoring for Software Design Smells presents 25 structural design smells, their role in identifying design issues, and potential refactoring solutions. Organized across common areas of software design, each smell is presented with diagrams and examples illustrating the poor design practices and the problems that result, creating a catalog of nuggets of readily usable information that developers or engineers can apply in their projects. The authors distill their research and experience as consultants and trainers, providing insights that have been used to improve refactoring and reduce the time and costs of managing software projects. Along the way they recount anecdotes from actual projects on which the relevant smell helped address a design issue.
Contains a comprehensive catalog of 25 structural design smells (organized around four fundamental design
principles) that contribute to technical debt in software projects
Presents a unique naming scheme for smells that helps understand the cause of a smell as well as points
toward its potential refactoring
Includes illustrative examples that showcase the poor design practices underlying a smell and the problems
Covers pragmatic techniques for refactoring design smells to manage technical debt and to create and maintain
high-quality software in practice
Presents insightful anecdotes and case studies drawn from the trenches of real-world projects
Software engineers, technical leads, software designers, and software architects, as well as those engaged as trainers for topics related to software design, refactoring, design smells, and design quality
Table of Contents
Foreword by Grady Booch
Foreword by Dr. Stéphane Ducasse
Chapter 1. Technical Debt
1.1. What is Technical Debt?
1.2. What Constitutes Technical Debt?
1.3. What is the Impact of Technical Debt?
1.4. What causes technical debt?
1.5. How to Manage Technical Debt?
Chapter 2. Design Smells
2.1. Why Care About Smells?
2.2. What Causes Smells?
2.3. How to address smells?
2.4. What Smells Are Covered in This Book?
2.5. A Classification of Design Smells
Chapter 3. Abstraction Smells
3.1. Missing Abstraction
3.2. Imperative Abstraction
3.3. Incomplete Abstraction
3.4. Multifaceted Abstraction
3.5. Unnecessary Abstraction
3.6. Unutilized Abstraction
3.7. Duplicate Abstraction
Chapter 4. Encapsulation Smells
4.1. Deficient Encapsulation
4.2. Leaky Encapsulation
4.3. Missing Encapsulation
4.4. Unexploited Encapsulation
Chapter 5. Modularization Smells
5.1. Broken Modularization
5.2. Insufficient Modularization
5.3. Cyclically-Dependent Modularization
5.4. Hub-like Modularization
Chapter 6. Hierarchy Smells
6.1. Missing Hierarchy
6.2. Unnecessary Hierarchy
6.3. Unfactored Hierarchy
6.4. Wide Hierarchy
6.5. Speculative Hierarchy
6.6. Deep Hierarchy
6.7. Rebellious Hierarchy
6.8. Broken Hierarchy
6.9. Multipath Hierarchy
6.10. Cyclic Hierarchy
Chapter 7. The Smell Ecosystem
7.1. The Role of Context
7.2. Interplay of Smells
Chapter 8. Repaying Technical Debt in Practice
8.1. The Tools
8.2. The Process
8.3. The people
Appendix A. Software Design Principles
Appendix B. Tools for Repaying Technical Debt
Appendix C. Notations for Figures
Appendix D. Suggested Reading